CytokinesRelated signaling pathwaysSourceTargetsFunctions / Effects
Growth hormone (GH)JAK2, STAT5bPituitary gland, placentaVarious tissuesGrowth, adipocyte differentiation
Prolactin (PRL)JAK2, STATaPituitary gland, placentaBreast epithelial cellsGrowth, differentiation
Erythropoietin (EPO)JAK2, STAT5Kidney, liverRed lineage precursor cellsRed lineage differentiation
Platelet Thrombopoietin (TPO)JAK2, STAT5Liver, kidneyTargeted progenitor cells, megakaryocytesPromotes platelet production
LeptinJAK2/STAT3AdipocytesHypothalamus, thyroidSatiety, control of metabolic rate
Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)JAK2, S1AT3Immature and directed granular mononuclear progenitor cells, macrophages, granulocytes, DCDirected progenitor cellsStimulates the growth of monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils; activates macrophages
CSF-1/M-CSFRas/Raf/MAPKFibroblasts, endothelial cells, epithelial cellsDirected granule mononuclear progenitor cellsStimulates the growth of monocyte precursors
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)JAK2, S1AT3Many tissues, macrophages, endothelial cells, fibroblastsDirected progenitor cellsStimulates the growth of neutrophil precursors; promotes granulocyte differentiation and activation
Stem cell factor (SCF)Ras/Raf/MAPKBone marrow stromal cellsPluripotent stem cellsActivation, growth
TNF-α Th, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, mast cells, NK cells, B cells Tumor cytotoxic effect; can cause malignancy; induces cytokine secretion; induces endothelial cell E selectin production; activates macrophages; antiviral.
Lymphotoxin (TNF-β) Th1, Tc Tumor cytotoxic effect; enhances cytocytosis of neutrophils and macrophages; involved in lymphoid organ development; antiviral.
IFN-αJAK2, TYK2, STAT1, STAT2LeukocytesOsteoblasts, including NKInhibits viral replication; enhances the action of MHC class II molecules.
IFN-βJAK2, TYK2, STAT1, STAT2Fibroblastsosteoblasts, including NKInhibits viral replication; enhances the role of MHC class II molecules.
IFN-γJAK1, JAK2, STAT1Th1, Tc1, NKmacrophages, endothelial cells, NK cellsInhibits viral replication; enhances the role of MHC class II molecules; activates macrophages; induces switch in immunoglobulin expression to lgG2a; antagonizes IL-4 action; inhibits Th2 proliferation.
FLT-3 ligandRas/Raf/MAPKVarious tissuesmyeloid cells, especially DCProliferation, differentiation; induce hematopoietic stem cells from G0 phase to proliferative phase
TGF-β Th, B cells, macrophages, mast cells Pro-inflammatory effects, such as induction of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis; Anti-inflammatory effects, such as inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation and induction of immunoglobulin switching to IgA; promotes tissue repair.
IL-1α, IL-1βIRAK (IL-1 receptor-associated kinase), MyD88, TRAF6 (TNF receptor-associated factor 6), NF-kBMonocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, NK, B, endothelial cellsCNS endothelial cells, liver, thymocytes, macrophages, T cellsCo-stimulates T-cell activation by enhancing expression of cytokines (e.g. IL-2 and its receptors); enhances B-cell proliferation and maturation, NK cytotoxicity; induces IL-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF, GM-CSF and PGE2 expression in macrophages; induces chemokines and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells to play a pro-inflammatory role; induces fever, acute phase protein expression, and bone resorption.
IL-2JAK1, JAK3, STAT5Th1T cells, B cells, NK cells, giant hemophagocytesInduces the proliferation of activated T cells and activated B cells; enhances NK cytotoxic activity and enhances the ability of monocytes and macrophages to kill tumor cells and bacteria.
IL-3Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)T, NK, mast cellsMonocytesHematopoietic cell precursor growth and differentiation; mast cell growth.
IL-4JAK1, JAK3, STAT6Th2, Tc2, NK, NKT, γδT, mast cellsT cells, B cells, giant DS cellsInduces Th2 cells; stimulates proliferation of activated B, T, and mast cells; upregulates B cells, macrophage MHC class II molecules, and CD23 in B cells; downregulates IL-12 production thereby inhibiting Th1 differentiation; enhances macrophage cytokinesis; induces immunoglobulin switching to IgG1 and IgE.
IL-5JAK2, STAT5Th2, mast cellsEosinophils, B cells, eosinophils, mast cellsInduces proliferation of eosinophilic and activated B cells; induces immunoglobulin switch to IgA.
IL-6JAK1, S1AT3Th2, monocytes, macrophages, dendrites, bone marrow stromal cellsLiver, B cells, T cells, thymocytes, contact cells, osteoblastsPromotes differentiation of myeloid stem cells and B cells into plasma cells; induces acute phase protein expression; enhances T cell proliferation; on Th17 and Tfh.
IL-7JAK1, JAK3, STAT5Bone marrow and thymic stromal cellsThymocytes, T cells, B cellsInduces differentiation of lymphoid stem cells into T-lineage progenitors and B-lineage progenitors; activates mature T cells.
IL-8/CXCL8 Monocytes, macrophages, endothelial cells Mediates chemotaxis and activation of neutrophils.
IL-9JAK1, JAK3, STAT5ThT cells, B cells, mast cell precursorsInduces proliferation of thymocytes; enhances mast fine growth; synergizes with IL-4 to induce immunoglobulin switching to IgG1 and IgE.
IL-10JAK1, TYK2, STAT3Th, Tc, B, monocytes, macrophagesMacrophagesInhibits IFNγ secretion in mice, inhibits human IL-2 secretion, suppresses Th1 cells; downregulates MHC class II molecules and cytokine (IL-12, etc.) production in monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, thereby inhibiting Th1 differentiation; inhibits T cell proliferation; enhances B differentiation.
IL-11JAK1, STAT3Bone marrow stromal cellsHematopoietic stem cells, hepatocytes, macrophages, neuronsPromotes differentiation of early B cells and megakaryocytes; induces acute phase protein expression.
IL-12JAK2, TYK2, STAT4Monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cellsT cells, NK cellsTh1 differentiation-critical cytokine; induces the proliferation of Th1, CD8+T, γδT, NK and IFNγ production. Enhances NK cell and CD8+ T cytotoxic effects.
IL-13JAK1, TYK2, STAT6Th2, mast cellsB cells, mast cells, macrophages, epithelial cells, smooth muscle cellsInhibits macrophage activation and cytokine secretion; co-stimulates B cell proliferation; upregulates MHC class II molecules and CD23 expression in B cells and monocytes; induces switch in immunoglobulin expression to IgG and IgE; induces VCAM-1 expression in endothelial cells.
IL-15JAK1, JAK3, STAT5T, NK, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, B cellsT cells, especially memory cellsInduces proliferation of T, NK, and activated B cells; induces cytokine production of NK, CD8+T; one of the chemokines of T cells; stimulates growth of small intestinal epithelial cells.
IL-16 Th, TcCD4+ T cellsInduces CD4+ T, monocyte, eosinophilia; induces expression of MHC class II molecules.
IL-17 T cells Pro-inflammatory effects; stimulates expression of TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF and other factors.
IL-17A Th17, NK, neutrophil-like cellsendothelial cells, etc.Pro-inflammatory effects; stimulates expression of TNF, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF and other factors in epithelial cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts.
IL-17B/C/D Multiple cellsMonocytes, epithelial cellsInflammation, chondrogenesis
IL-17E(IL-25)TRAF2Mast cells, Th2 cellsTh2 cellsEnhancement of Th2 response
IL-17F Th17, NK, neutrophilsEndothelial cells, etc.Similar to IL-17A.
IL-18 Macrophages, dendritic cellsT cells, NK cells, giant hemophils, epithelial cellsInduces IFNγ production by T cells; enhances NK cytotoxic effects.
IL-19STAT1, S7AT3MonocytesT cells, keratin-forming cells, epithelial cellsRegulates Th1 activity.
IL-20STAT1, S7AT3Monocytes, keratinocytesT cells, keratin-forming cells, epithelial cellsRegulates skin inflammatory response.
IL-21JAK1, JAK3, STAT3T cells, Th17 cells, Tfh cellsT cell, B cell, NK cell, DCRegulation of hematopoiesis; NK differentiation; B-cell activation; T-cell co-stimulation; Tfh-directed differentiation and survival.
IL-22STAT1, S7AT3T cellsT cells, keratin-forming cells, epithelial cellsInhibits IL-4 production by Th2.
IL-23JAK2, TYK2, STAT3, STAT5Dendritic cellsT cells, giant eosinophilsInduces Th1 proliferation and IFNγ production; induces Th17 expansion and survival; induces macrophage expression of pro-inflammatory factors (e.g., IL-1, IL-6, TNF).
IL-24STAT1, S7AT3Th2, monocytes, macrophagesT cells, keratin-forming cells, epithelial cellsInduces TNF, IL-1, IL-6 expression and induces anti-tumor activity.
IL-25 Th1, macrophages, mast cells Induces IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 expression and induces Th2-associated pathological changes.
IL-26STAT1, S7AT3T cells, NK cellsT cells, keratin-forming cells, epithelial cellsEnhances IL-8 and IL-10 production by epithelial cells.
IL-27JAK1, STAT1, S1AT3, STAT4, STAT5Dendritic cells, monocytesT cells and NK cells and otherInduces Th1 response; enhances IFNγ production.
IL-28STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5Dendritic cells, monocytesmany kinds of cellsType 1 IFN-like activity and inhibition of viral replication.
IL-29STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5Dendritic cells, monocytesMultiple cellsType 1 IFN-like activity that inhibits viral replication.
IL-30STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, STAT4, STAT5Antigen-presenting cellsA variety of cellsP28 subunit of IL-27 heterodimer, regulates the responsiveness of initial T cells to IL-12; acts synergistically with IL-12 to induce IFNγ expression.
IL-31JAK1, STAT3, STAT5T cellsMonocytes, epithelial cells, keratinocytes, eosinophils, dark alkaline granulocytesPromotes skin inflammatory responses.
IL-32 NF-kB, MAPKNK cells, T cellsMonocytes, epithelial cellsPromotes inflammatory responses; plays a role in activation-mediated T-cell apoptosis.
IL-33  Stromal cells, dendritic cellsT cells, ILC2Induces Th2 factor production; mediates chemotaxis of basophils and mast cells.
IL-34  Stromal cells, dendritic cells Stimulates monocyte proliferation and macrophage precursor formation.
IL-35  TregT cellsProduces immunosuppressive effects on Th1, Th2, Th17 and stimulates Treg proliferation.
IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ  Keratin-forming cells, other barrier tissues, neutrophils Activates monocytes, macrophages, and keratin-forming cells to produce a variety of pro-inflammatory factors that co-stimulate T cells.
IL-37  Unknown Anti-inflammatory effect, possible antagonist of IL-18R; not expressed in mice.
IL-38  UnknownMacrophagesAnti-inflammatory effect, IL-36α isoform, possible antagonist of IL-36 receptor.

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