IL-24 is a member of the IL-10 family. It is expressed in human tissues with high tissue specificity. It is mainly expressed in monocytes, macrophages, T cells in immune tissues and organs such as spleen, thymus, peripheral blood, T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and NK cells, etc. IL-24 can inhibit the proliferation of many cancer cells by inducing apoptosis without damaging normal cells. It can also resist angiogenesis, immune regulation, and increase the sensitivity of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

Mechanism and Function

The receptor of IL-24 is composed of two heterodimers, which are IL-20R1/IL-20R2, IL-22R1/IL-20R2, which belong to type II cytokine receptors. IL-20R is mainly expressed in normal skin keratinocytes and testis, and IL-20R1 is the main communicator of IL-20R activity. IL-22R1 is mainly expressed in normal liver and kidney tissues and various tumor cells. IL-24 can bind IL-20R2 alone, but its co-expression with IL-20R1 or IL-22R1 not only increases the affinity, but is also necessary for receptor activation. After IL-24 is combined with IL-20 and IL-22 receptor complex, it can activate JAK/ signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) signal pathway, and rapidly increase the phosphorylation transduction of tyrosine in JAK/STAT complex Signal, thereby regulating cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis.

IL-24 has a great relationship with tumors. It can promote tumor cell apoptosis, inhibit tumor cell growth, inhibit tumor angiogenesis, inhibit tumor cell metastasis, etc., so that it has a wide range of selective anti-tumor effects and immune regulation. effect. And it can promote tumor cell apoptosis by increasing the synthesis of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. It can also down-regulate the synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B, focal adhesion kinase, matrix metalloproteinase 2/9, and inhibit cancer cell invasion and metastasis. IL-24 has a certain connection with prostate cancer. It can kill sensitive prostate cancer cells through the extra cellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway. In addition, it also has the effect of inhibiting tumor DNA repair. In breast cancer, IL-24 inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells through an anti-tumor-bystander effect. In liver cancer, IL-24 blocks the S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. In cervical cancer, colon cancer, nasopharyngeal cancer and osteosarcoma and other tumor cells, IL-24 has played a significant role in growth inhibition and apoptosis. IL-24 can also induce the secretion of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, and stimulate T cell proliferation, thereby promoting the activation of the immune system. IL-24 has anti-angiogenic activity and reduces tumor micro vessel density by inhibiting angiogenesis. IL-24 can also induce apoptosis through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. In tumor cells, IL-24 can induce the transcription of GADD gene, which is related to protein misfolding and DNA damage, such as lung cancer. IL-24 can also cause autophagy. The interaction of IL-24 and Beclin-1 and the clearance of autophagy-related gene 5 play a huge role in the transition from autophagy to apoptosis caused by IL-24. IL-24 is also related to pathological scars. Compared with normal skin, the expression level of IL-24 in pathological scars is lower.

IL-24 Detection Service Fig 1. Mechanism of Signaling

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IL-24 Detection Service

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  1. He M, Liang P. IL-24 Transgenic Mice: In Vivo Evidence of Overlapping Functions for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 in the Epidermis. Journal of Immunology, 2010, 184(4):1793-1798.
  2. Sarkar D, Su Z Z, Lebedeva I V, et al. mda-7 (IL-24) mediates selective apoptosis in human melanoma cells by inducing the coordinated overexpression of the GADD family of genes by means of p38 MAPK. Proceedings of the National Academy of ences of the United States of America, 2002, 99(15):10054-10059.
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