Introduction to CXCR4 signaling pathway
Based on Luminex technology platform, Creative Proteomics provides analysis services for key targets of CXCR4 signaling pathway.
CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor in the GPCR gene family, and is expressed by cells in the immune system and the central nervous system. CXCR4 is expressed on most tissues and organs in the body. It is a GPCR (G protein coupled receptor) composed of 352 amino acids and has a seven-pass membrane structure. CXCR4 participates in a variety of physiological mechanisms in the body, including HIV-1 virus infection, hematopoietic function, embryonic development, and tumor migration.
In response to binding its ligand SDF-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1), CXCR4 triggers the migration and recruitment of immune cells. This ligand-receptor pair may also play a role in development of the nervous system. In addition to acting as a chemokine receptor, CXCR4 is a co-receptor for entry of HIV into T cells and ligands of CXCR4, including SDF-1 may help to block HIV infection. Early in the infection of an individual, HIV viruses often are tropic for the CCR5 coreceptor that provides for macrophage entry, then later in infection are tropic for CXCR4 and T cell entry. Viruses that are tropic for CXCR4 are generally syncitium forming, causing T cells to aggregate and be destroyed at a rapid rate.
CXCR4 induces downstream signaling by several different pathways. As a GPCR, CXCR4 binding of SDF-1 activates G-protein mediated signaling, including downstream pathways such as ras, and PI3 kinase. PI3 kinase activated by SDF-1 and CXCR4 plays a role in lymphocyte chemotaxis in response to these signals. One endpoint of CXCR4 signaling is the activation of transcription factors such as AP-1 and chemokine regulated genes. JAK/STAT signaling pathways also appear to play a role in SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling. Delineation of the signaling mechanisms utilized by CXCR4 may assist in determining the role of CXCR4 in HIV infection and in the immune response.
The combination of CXCL12 and the receptor CXCR4 activates a series of intracellular signal transduction pathways and effector molecules, and regulates cell survival, proliferation, movement, migration and adhesion. A large number of downstream effector molecules may cause a variety of pathological effects of breast cancer under the regulation of CXCR4. In addition to direct effects, there are also some indirect effects that enhance tumor formation by recruiting other cells through the tumor microenvironment. At the same time, CX-CR4 increases the microvessel density of the tumor.
Our detectable targets:
We provide Luminex technology for CXCR4 signaling pathway analysis.
Luminex technology is a multifunctional liquid phase analysis platform developed on the basis of colored microspheres, laser technology, applied fluidics and high-speed digital signal processing technology. The core is to encode polypropylene microspheres or magnetic microspheres with fluorescent dyes. By adjusting the different ratios of the two fluorescent dyes, up to 100 microspheres with different fluorescence spectra can be obtained. Antigen-antibody, enzyme-substrate, ligand-receptor binding reactions and nucleic acid hybridization reactions are performed on microspheres with different fluorescence encoding. Qualitative and quantitative analysis by laser detection of microsphere coding and reporter fluorescence separately.
The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a specific receptor for chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). The signal pathway mediated by chemokine receptor CXCR4 plays an important role in cell proliferation, migration and implantation in human embryo development.
In addition to Luminex Multiplex Assay, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Flow cytometry (FACS analysis) technology can also be provided to meet other customer needs.
Advantages of CXCR4 signaling pathway detection:
- High sensitivity: The surface area of the microspheres is large, and 100,000 probes can be fixed on each microsphere, which ensures the maximum binding with the target molecules in the sample and improves the detection sensitivity. The lowest detection concentration can reach 0.1pg/mL.
- Strong specificity: Can read the fluorescent signal on a single microsphere, and automatically distinguish between bound and unbound microspheres.
- High accuracy: Without washing, the fluorescence intensity of the reporter molecule on the microsphere is proportional to the bound molecule to be detected. Because the detection range of the Luminex detection platform is large, it does not need to be diluted like ELISA detection, which further reduces errors.
Application of our service:
- To study the regulation mechanism of CXCR4 signal pathway in disease
- To study the effect of each virus on CXCR4 signaling pathway
- To study the effects of drugs or therapies on CXCR4 signaling pathways
Creative Proteomics has developed a signal pathway target detection platform. We are not limited to providing CXCR4 signal path detection services, but can also provide other signal path detection services. If you want to detect other targets, please contact us and we will customize the service for you. Look forward to working with you.
- LeCapitaine NJ, Ping Zhang, et al. Chronic Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol administration increases lymphocyte CXCR4 expression in rhesus macaques. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, 2019, 6(4): 540-550.
- Saini V, Marchese A, et al. CXC chemokine receptor 4 is a cell surface receptor for extracellular ubiquitin. J. Biol. Chem, 2019, 285 (20): 15566–15576.