Interleukin-9 is released by helper T cells and can also be produced by T cells transformed by T cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), which is a type of T cell growth factor. It is expressed in human eosinophils, natural killer cells, Th9 cells, Th17 cells and Treg cells. In addition to stimulating the growth of T cells, it can also support the growth of hematopoietic progenitor cells, expand the response of bone marrow mast cells to IL-3, and promote various functions such as the growth of certain leukemia cell lines, thymoma cell lines, and T cells. IL-9 can stimulate airway epithelial cells (AEC) to secrete certain proteins and activate the expression of AEC mucin gene subsets, causing AEC to secrete excessive mucusIL-9 can also directly act on AEC to produce chemokines and promote the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lungs, which is related to human asthma.

Mechanism and Function

IL-9 acts through a receptor on the surface of the target cell membrane. The receptor for IL-9 (IL-9R) exists on the surface of a variety of cell membranes. It is a heterodimer structure composed of a specific α-subunit ligand and A common gamma chain consists of two strands. IL-9 can promote tumor cell proliferation by activating the STAT3 phosphorylation level and then activating the STAT3 signaling pathway. The activation of IL-9 promotes the phosphorylation of protein tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3), thereby causing signal transduction in downstream regions and activation of transcription activation factor (STAT), especially STAT1 homodimer, STAT5 homodimer and STAT1-STAT3 heterodimer. STAT activation is necessary in IL-9-induced T cell proliferation.

Under specific circumstances, IL-9 can enhance the suppressive function of Treg cells. The mechanism of IL-9 acting on Treg is through the activation of STAT3 and STAT5 signals. A lot of evidence shows that STAT3 and STAT5 signaling pathways play a key regulatory role in the development of Treg. Therefore, IL-9 can affect the immune response and Th17 / Treg balance.

IL-9 is also related to allergic asthma. IL-9 participates in the development of the disease by promoting the proliferation of mast cells and the production of IL-13, and subsequently increasing the release of mucus and participating in airway hyperresponsiveness. And IL-9 does not rely on inflammatory responses to directly induce these changes. IL-9 plays a role in peribronchial fibrosis, and overexpression of IL-9 can aggravate fibrosis around the bronchi. In addition, it can directly act on red blood cell-oriented liver cells, and has the effect of selectively stimulating red blood cell production.

IL-9 Detection ServiceFig 1. Mechanism of Signaling

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We mainly provide the Luminex cytokine detection platform. Luminex uses fluorescently encoded microspheres with specific antibodies to different target molecules. The different microspheres can be combined freely to a certain extent so that up to 100 analytes can be tested multiple times simultaneously in a single experiment.

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IL-9 Detection Service

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  1. Temann U A , Ray P , Flavell R A . Pulmonary overexpression of IL-9 induces Th2 cytokine expression, leading to immune pathology. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 2002, 109(1):29-39.
  2. Nowak E C , Weaver C T , et al. IL-9 as a mediator of Th17-driven inflammatory disease. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2009, 206(8):1653-1660.
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