IL-26, a member of the IL-10 family produced by memory T cells, monocytes, and NK cells, is expressed at low levels in normal humans. But it is overexpressed in HSV-transformed human T cells, and in rheumatoid arthritis patients, IL-26 is produced primarily by synovial cells. It is highly expressed in the skin, testes, pancreas, heart, placenta, salivary glands, and prostate, but is expressed at low levels in the kidneys, liver, colon, and small intestine. It plays a pro-inflammatory role in rheumatoid arthritis and a role in antitumorigenesis.
The active receptor complex of IL-26 is a dimer composed of IL-20R1 and IL-10R2, both class II cytokine receptors, with IL-20R1 expressed mainly in non-hematopoietic cells, especially epithelial cells, but not in lymphocytes, whereas IL-10R2 is widely expressed in various tissues. IL-20R1 is the main ligand-binding chain, which associates with Jak1, and the ligand checkpoint causes the initiation of a signal transduction cascade. il-10r2 associates with tyrosine protein kinase 2 (Tyk2), and the receptor-associated Jaks cross-activate and phosphorylate IL-20R1 intracellular domain, which activates STAT1 and STAT3.
IL-26 belongs to the IL-10 family and is structurally similar to IL-10, but it exhibits strong inflammatory effects in a variety of different tissues in the body, including the skin. It has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease and can participate in processes that regulate inflammation and immune responses. In addition, it shares a common genetic polymorphism with the IFN-γ gene and has a gender-based disease susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis, so IL-26 plays a pro-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of RA. IL-26 is also associated with psoriasis, where binding to its receptor IL-20R1 plays a strong pro-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
IL-26 also effectively promoted the recruitment of neutrophils to the focus of infection and exerted a bactericidal effect. With the participation of IL-26, the chemotactic effect of IL-8 on neutrophils is greatly enhanced. When viral infection occurs, IL-26 can activate natural killer (NK) cells to produce IL-1β, TNF-α and other pro-inflammatory factors to aggravate the inflammatory response of the liver. It was also able to promote the killing of HCV-infected Huh7.5 hepatocytes by upregulating tumor necrosis factor-associated apoptosis-inducing ligands on the surface of CD16+CD56brightNK cells.
Fig 1. Mechanism of Signaling
Creative Proteomics can provide cytokine detection platform for scientific research. According to different purposes, our dedicated analysts will customize exclusive solutions for you. We aim to provide customers with high-quality and convenient services to help you accelerate the progress of your project.
We mainly provide the Luminex cytokine detection platform. Luminex uses fluorescently encoded microspheres with specific antibodies to different target molecules. The different microspheres can be combined freely to a certain extent so that up to 100 analytes can be tested multiple times simultaneously in a single experiment.
The Luminex cytokine assay platform has the following advantages:
For your different needs, we can also provide the following detection methods:
For more information about the IL-26 detection service or need other detection requirements, please contact us.