Interleukin 20 (IL-20) is a new member of the recently discovered interleukin 10-related cytokine family. IL-20 is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine with the ability to enhance inflammation, angiogenesis and chemotaxis. Both human and mouse IL-20 molecules are composed of 176 amino acids, with a homology of 76%. IL-20 has 28% homology with IL-10, and has some homology with other IL-10 family members such as IL-19, IL-22, IL-24, IL-26 in amino acid sequence, but the biological functions are different. IL-20 can regulate the normal physiological functions of skin, activate the STAT3 pathway in keratinocytes, promote the large expression of some cytokines and chemokines, and thereby regulate the occurrence of early skin inflammation. IL-20 can also promote the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, which is closely related to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.
IL-20 is a soluble protein and belongs to the IL-10 cytokine family. IL-20 is secreted by activated keratinocytes and monocytes, and transmits signals to the cell through two receptors expressed on the surface of other endothelial cells. IL-20 has certain homology with IL-10 and other IL-10 family members in the amino acid sequence, such as 28% homology with IL-10. There are 6 conserved cysteine residues in the IL-20 molecule, of which cys81 and cys134 form a disulfide bond, but do not form a dimer. IL-20 can play a role by binding to the receptor, and two subunits must exist at the same time to efficiently bind to the ligand. IL-20 receptors (IL-20Rα/IL-22Rα, IL-20Rβ) are expressed in renal tissue interstitial fibroblasts, renal epithelial cells, mesangial cells and podocytes. After IL-20 binds to the receptor, it activates STAT3 by binding to JAK1 and TYK2. The two STAT3 form a homodimer through the nuclear membrane to enter the nucleus, regulate gene expression, and produce biological effects.
IL-20 can promote the secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Under the stimulation of IL-20, the expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1 and MRP-14 in cells were up-regulated, and these cytokines are closely related to the early inflammation initiation and immune response. Moreover, IL-20 can also stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, which may be related to T cells. In addition, IL-20 can imbalance the pro-apoptosis and pro-survival molecules, induce programmed death of renal epithelial cells, and finally activate the bypass of mitochondrial apoptosis. IL-20 is an important medium for regulating renal tubular cell apoptosis and promoting renal fibrosis, and stimulates mesangial cells to produce iNOS, ROS, MCP-1, and IL-6. And iNOS promotes the production of more nitric oxide, causing kidney tissue damage. In addition, IL-20 also induced the production of TGF-β1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 mesangial cells. These results indicate that IL-20 may be involved in renal fibrosis. Infiltrating inflammatory cells, mesangial cells, or renal epithelial cells produce IL-20, which then triggers fibroblasts to produce more fibrotic factors. IL-20 also induces epithelial cell apoptosis in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Blocking the function of IL-20, including monoclonal antibodies or small molecules, may be a viable treatment option for IL-20-mediated kidney injury, which can delay its progress and reduce its severity.
Fig 1. Mechanism of Signaling
Creative Proteomics can provide cytokine detection platform for scientific research. According to different purposes, our dedicated analysts will customize exclusive solutions for you. We aim to provide customers with high-quality and convenient services to help you accelerate the progress of your project.
We mainly provide the Luminex cytokine detection platform. Luminex uses fluorescently encoded microspheres with specific antibodies to different target molecules. The different microspheres can be combined freely to a certain extent so that up to 100 analytes can be tested multiple times simultaneously in a single experiment.
The Luminex cytokine assay platform has the following advantages:
For your different needs, we can also provide the following detection methods:
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