IL-2 is a cell growth factor in the immune system produced by activated T lymphocytes, also known as T cell growth factor. IL-2 can activate T cells, participate in the induction of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte production. Besides, it can cause proliferation of B cells and stimulate NK cell production, proliferation and activation. The cell proliferation response induced by it is a key factor affecting the intensity of the immune response. IL-2 receptor IL-2R is composed of three chains, α, β and γ, respectively, while IL-2 can induce IL-2Rα expression and induce phosphorylation of Jak1 and Jak3, among which Jak1 and Jak3 can Binds to IL-2β and γ. At present, IL-2 can be used for immunotherapy of tumors, and can also be used as an immunoadjuvant to enhance the effect of conventional vaccine immunization. It reduces the side effects of vaccine immunization, and also treats infectious diseases.
Mechanism and Function
IL-2 is a cell growth factor that regulates the activity of white blood cells in the immune system and exerts immunoregulatory functions, mainly produced by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. IL-2 is involved in the inflammatory response, maintaining immune system homeostasis and anti-tumor effects. In the inflammatory response, the effector cell Th0 differentiates into Th1 under the mediated IL-2, and IFN-γ promotes the development of Th1. Th1 can activate monocyte-macrophages, therefore, IL-2 plays a certain role in promoting inflammation. In addition to promoting Th1 production, IL-2 also promotes the production of Th2 and the proliferation of regulatory T cells. However, differentiation of T cells into effector cells Th17 is inhibited. In addition, IL-2 can also affect the normal development of regulatory T cells and maintain the peripheral homeostasis of Treg, while regulatory T cells can negatively regulate immune function. The absence of IL-2R will cause autoimmune diseases. IL-2 also has an anti-tumor effect, and it can induce an antigen-specific Th1 immune response and allow CTL to exert a more effective immune effect.
IL-2 must bind to the receptor to exert biological effects. However, IL-2Rα is rarely expressed in resting T cells. But when T cell receptor is activated, IL-2Rα expression is increased, so IL-2Rα is a marker of T cell activation. IL-2Rβ plays a major role in mediating signal transduction. It activates MAPK and PI3K adaptor protein Shc in the MAPK pathway, ultimately activate the MAPK pathway. In the JAK/STAT5 pathway, the combination of β and STAT factor make STAT5 phosphorylate, thereby enabling up-regulation of target gene expression. IL-2Rγ, like β, is also capable of signal transduction. IL-2, through complex regulation, can make the signal path perform correctly.
Fig 1. Mechanism of Signaling
Creative Proteomics can provide cytokine detection platform for scientific research. According to different purposes, our dedicated analysts will customize exclusive solutions for you. We aim to provide customers with high-quality and convenient services to help you accelerate the progress of your project.
Our cytokine detection service includes but is not limited to:
- Quantitative and qualitative detection of cytokines in different species
- Quantitative and qualitative detection of cytokine antibodies
- Quantitative and qualitative detection of single/mulltiple cytokines
- Sample Types-Blood, serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, cell culture supernatant, tissue homogenate, cell culture medium, urine, tumor, etc.
- Sample Volume-It is optimal for at least 200µl of each sample. This volume allows for triplicate testing of each sample.
- Efficient design: Multiplex reaction detecting in various methods are available, which can be selected according to different samples and requirements.
- Sensitive detection: High-quality antibodies are used in the detection process to improve detection specificity and accuracy.
- Reliable results: The feedback results are professional and efficient.
We mainly provide the Luminex cytokine detection platform. Luminex uses fluorescently encoded microspheres with specific antibodies to different target molecules. The different microspheres can be combined freely to a certain extent so that up to 100 analytes can be tested multiple times simultaneously in a single experiment.
The Luminex cytokine assay platform has the following advantages:
- Multiple detection: simultaneous detection of 100 biological targets
- Short experiment time: 1-3 weeks
- High sensitivity: the lower limit of accurate quantification is as low as 0.1 pg/mL
- Save samples: only need a sample volume as low as 25 μL
- Time saving: the experiment process only takes 4 hours
For your different needs, we can also provide the following detection methods:
- Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
- Flow cytometry
For more information about the IL-2 detection service or need other detection requirements, please contact us.
- Wang X, Lupardus P, Laporte SL, et al. Structural biology of shared cytokine receptors. Annu Rev Immunol, 2009, 27:29-60.